Teachers

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Snapshot

Comparisons

Teacher Shortage

Teacher Salaries

See More: Teacher Turnover

See More: Teacher Race and Gender

See More: Inexperienced and Out-of-Field Teachers

Why it Matters (Snapshot & Comparisons)

Teacher Turnover

Although teacher turnover can have benefits, such as improving the quality of the teacher workforce with the departure of ineffective educators, it also carries costs including reducing student achievement in those classrooms and the school as a whole.  This can result from lower teacher quality, disruptions of instructional continuity, and a loss of sustained relationships among faculty, students, and the community.  It is also expensive to recruit, hire, and train new teachers.

Inexperienced and First-Year Teachers

Early-career teachers are generally not as effective as those with more experience.  Teachers’ academic effectiveness increases significantly with additional experience during the first several years in teaching.

Alternatively Certified Among First-Year Teachers

Alternatively certified teachers come into the profession with less coursework and student teaching, which generally predict high rates of leaving particularly when they teach in schools with high proportions of students of color.

Out-of-Field Teachers

Out-of-field teaching–teaching a subject that is not your specialty or teaching an age group you are not trained to teach–affects subject integrity and disrupts classroom management, which can in turn harm student satisfaction and learning outcomes.  For teachers, it is an additional workload and stressful, and particularly for early-career teachers, teaching out of field increases their risk of leaving the profession.

Teacher Race Diversity

Students of color benefit over the short and long run when taught by a same-race teacher in terms of test scores, attendance, suspensions, and high school graduation. Having a teacher of color results in similar impacts for White students.  For Black students, particularly, having even one same-race teacher delivers these outcomes. The effect on college aspirations and enrollment from early race-matching of students and teachers is as large as a significant class-size reduction.

Why it Matters (Trends)

Inexperienced and First-Year Teachers

Early-career teachers are generally not as effective as those with more experience.  Teachers’ academic effectiveness increases significantly with additional experience during the first several years in teaching.

Alternatively Certified Among First-Year Teachers

Alternatively certified teachers come into the profession with less coursework and student teaching, which generally predict high rates of leaving particularly when they teach in schools with high proportions of students of color.

Out-of-Field Teachers

Out-of-field teaching–teaching a subject that is not your specialty or teaching an age group you are not trained to teach–affects subject integrity and disrupts classroom management, which can in turn harm student satisfaction and learning outcomes.  For teachers, it is an additional workload and stressful, and particularly for early-career teachers, teaching out of field increases their risk of leaving the profession.

Teacher Race Diversity

Students of color benefit over the short and long run when taught by a same-race teacher in terms of test scores, attendance, suspensions, and high school graduation. Having a teacher of color results in similar impacts for White students.  For Black students, particularly, having even one same-race teacher delivers these outcomes. The effect on college aspirations and enrollment from early race-matching of students and teachers is as large as a significant class-size reduction.

Why it Matters (Teacher Shortage)

A major factor in the need for more teachers and teacher shortages is high rates of teacher turnover.  These high rates adversely impact student achievement in both math and English language arts and have a large financial cost for school districts.   With a teacher shortage, an increasing number of classes are taught by out-of-field teachers, which short changes student learning and makes it harder to retain these teachers. The teacher shortage increases educational inequity:  In general, high rates of turnover have a larger detrimental effect on the achievement of low-performing and Black students; teacher attrition and out-of-field teaching is greater at higher poverty schools; and teachers serving special needs students have the highest number of vacant positions.

Why it Matters (Teacher Salaries)

Teacher Salaries

The length of time teachers stay in teaching depends on salaries and opportunity costs, which are the salaries teachers forgo by staying in teaching instead of moving into a different field.  Higher teacher base salaries reduce the achievement gap between White and Black students as well as between White and Hispanic students by raising test scores more for those minority students.  It also helps with recruiting by attracting higher-achieving college students to the education field.

Why it Matters (See More: Teacher Turnover)

Teacher Turnover

Although teacher turnover can have benefits, such as improving the quality of the teacher workforce with the departure of ineffective educators, it also carries costs including reducing student achievement in those classrooms and the school as a whole.  This can result from lower teacher quality, disruptions of instructional continuity, and a loss of sustained relationships among faculty, students, and the community.  It is also expensive to recruit, hire, and train new teachers.

Why it Matters (See More: Teacher Race and Gender)

Teacher Race Diversity

Students of color benefit over the short and long run when taught by a same-race teacher in terms of test scores, attendance, suspensions, and high school graduation. Having a teacher of color results in similar impacts for White students.  For Black students, particularly, having even one same-race teacher delivers these outcomes. The effect on college aspirations and enrollment from early race-matching of students and teachers is as large as a significant class-size reduction.

Teacher Gender Diversity

Boys do not exhibit higher academic achievement when assigned to male teachers.  There are large, positive effects for female student math achievement from having a female math teacher.   A gender-diverse teaching staff helps students by allowing them to observe men who are non-violent and whose interactions with women are positive.  It also provides the opportunity to learn from teachers who they perceive as being similar to themselves. This may promote feelings of school belonging, which can reduce disruptive behavior.

Why it Matters (See More: Inexperienced and Out-of-Field Teachers)

Inexperienced and First-Year Teachers

Early-career teachers are generally not as effective as those with more experience.  Teachers’ academic effectiveness increases significantly with additional experience during the first several years in teaching.

Out-of-Field Teachers

Out-of-field teaching–teaching a subject that is not your specialty or teaching an age group you are not trained to teach–affects subject integrity and disrupts classroom management, which can in turn harm student satisfaction and learning outcomes.  For teachers, it is an additional workload and stressful, and particularly for early-career teachers, teaching out of field increases their risk of leaving the profession.